Breach of Contract in Thailand

Contracts weave the fabric of commerce in Thailand binding parties to their obligations and fostering trust in agreements. However, disputes arise and legal action may become necessary.

Navigating contract disputes in Thailand requires a thorough understanding of the relevant legal landscape, including the Civil Code and available remedies. The most common remedies include damages, specific performance, and rescission.


The vibrant tapestry of commerce in Thailand is built upon intricate agreements and unspoken compacts. However, such arrangements are susceptible to breach when misunderstandings or disagreements arise. Navigating contract disputes requires an examination of contractual terms, the nature of the breach, and available remedies.

Legal remedies for breaches of contract in Thailand include damages, specific performance, and rescission. Damages involve monetary compensation intended to cover financial losses caused by the breach, while specific performance obligates the breaching party to fulfill its obligations under the contract as originally agreed to. Finally, a non-breaching party may elect to cancel or rescind the contract as a result of the breach, relieving both parties from their respective obligations.

Litigation is a last resort in such situations, and is only possible after informal methods fail to resolve the dispute. However, the courts are a good venue for contract dispute resolution as they can assess evidence, interpret contract provisions, and determine the appropriate remedy.

Preventing contract issues and resolving them swiftly are key to maintaining business relationships in Thailand. Seeking guidance from qualified legal professionals during the contract negotiation and drafting process can help ensure that all parties understand their obligations and that any agreed-upon provisions are enforceable under Thai law. A legal team can also offer valuable insight into the local court system and its hierarchy to assist with navigating this unfamiliar environment.

Specific Performance

While navigating breach of contract in Thailand can be nuanced and potentially complex, building strong contracts, communicating openly with business partners, and seeking legal guidance when a dispute arises can turn the discord into a harmonious resolution, restoring balance to the music of commerce.

A breach of contract occurs when one party fails to fulfill their obligations as stipulated in an agreement. This typically entitles the non-breaching party to seek remedies such as damages or specific performance.

The most common remedy, damages compensate the non-breaching party for monetary losses that directly resulted from the breach. However, this compensation may also cover indirect or consequential losses that were reasonably foreseeable at the time of the contract formation.

In cases where monetary compensation isn’t adequate, the court can order specific performance, which forces the breaching party to fulfill their contractual promises as originally agreed upon. This remedy can be particularly useful in situations where the subject matter of the contract is unique or when a remedy such as rescission would be impossible to apply. For more information on contract law in Thailand, please see Munin Pongsapan, ‘Remedies for Breach of Contract: Damages, Specific Performance, and Rescission’ in Mindy Chen-Wishart, Alexander Loke, and Burton Ong (Eds), Studies in the Contract Laws of Asia, vol 1 (OUP 2015).


Contracts are the cornerstone of business transactions and relationships in Thailand. A breach of contract has significant ramifications and can disrupt commercial operations. The Civil Code outlines the legal landscape of contract breaches, establishing a framework for liability, damages, and remedies.

Damages aim to compensate the non-breaching party for financial losses incurred due to the breach. The non-breaching party may also request specific performance, which compels the breaching party to fulfill contractual obligations in the manner originally agreed upon. Alternatively, the non-breaching party may opt to terminate the contract, relieving both parties of their obligations.

Whether the breach is minor or severe, it’s important to document and analyze the extent of the harm caused. This helps ensure that compensation is reasonable and proportional to the actual damages incurred.

In many cases, a dispute may not make it to court and can be resolved through informal methods of dispute resolution like arbitration or mediation. However, if all other options have been exhausted it is possible to file a lawsuit in the Thai court system. This requires a strong understanding of local law and Thai legal principles along with a commitment to preserving commercial relationships and achieving just outcomes. To navigate these intricacies, it is important to have the support of an experienced local legal team.

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